What Is Diabetes?
Table of Contents
The WHO defines diabetes as a chronic metabolic disease that occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin (insulin resistance) that is produced, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels.
How Does A Diabetes Diet Help Manage Blood Glucose Levels?
The management of diabetes needs a holistic approach that involves lifestyle management, along with good glycemic control and balanced nutrition to manage blood sugar levels. The right food choices often help manage blood sugar levels, improve blood cholesterol, and keep you in a healthy weight range. Always speak to a nutritionist and choose the right foods to control blood glucose levels.
Sample Indian Diet Chart For Diabetes
The Indian diabetes diet chart will assure you get 1200-1600 calories per day, which is based on age, diabetes type, gender, medication type, and physical activity.
Diet Chart for North Indian
|Time||FOODS TO EAT|
|Early Morning||· Overnight soaked fenugreek water – one glass
· 4-5 overnight soaked almonds
|Breakfast||· Eat one slice of brown bread, 2-boiled egg whites, and one cup of green tea
· 2-small whole wheat parathas with one cup raita, half cup boiled sprouts, and one teaspoon pickle
· Half cup wheat flakes or unprocessed ragi flakes with one cup of low-fat milk and one pinch of cinnamon powder. Include half a teaspoon of honey for sweetening.
· One whole boiled egg and two vegetable moong chillas with green chutney
|Pre-Lunch||· One cup tomato, cucumber, and carrot salad. Include one dash of lime, garnish with coriander leaves and some mint leaves.
· Eat one seasonal fruit except for mango, banana, custard apple, sapota, and jackfruit
· Bitter gourd juice or unstrained vegetable juice
|Lunch||· Eat 2-whole wheat chapatis with half cup dal, half cup rajma or chole, one cup okra curry or another vegetable curry, and half cup raita or curd
· Eat 2-medium-sized whole wheat chapatis with 3oz baked fish with one cup raita and vegetable curry
|Evening Snacks||· Green tea without artificial sweeteners or sugar. You can get one small cup of baked snacks or Bhel puri|
|Dinner||· Eat any vegetable curry or capsicum or gourd, or brinjal, 2-chapatis, except for root vegetables, and one cup paneer or dal
· 2-medium chapatis with any vegetable curry, chicken stew, or except root vegetables
|Before Bed||· One cup of warm milk with one pinch of raw ground turmeric or cinnamon powder|
Diet Chart for East Indian
|Time||FOODS TO EAT|
|Early Morning||· Overnight soaked Fenugreek water
· Overnight soaked 4-5 almonds
|Breakfast||· one whole boiled egg or 2 boiled egg white, 1 toasted wheat bread slice
· One whole wheat chapati, cucumber salad, half cup boiled sprouts, and any vegetable recipe
· One whole wheat stuffed paratha, cucumber salad, one teaspoon pickle, and peas sabzi
|Pre-Lunch:||· One cup of guava or papaya or one orange or apple
· Any fiber-containing juice of bitter gourd or another vegetable
|Lunch||· Half cup vegetables like cauliflower, pear, any gourd, capsicum, or green beans, and 2 medium-sized whole wheat chapati, with one cup daal
· Half cup rice, cucumber tomato salad, fish curry, or half cup vegetable curry
· half cup curd or one cup daily or vegetable khichdi
|Evening Snacks||· Green tea and masala puffed rice
· A fistful of roasted nuts like pistachios, almonds, or walnuts, and green tea
|Dinner||· Half cup chicken stew, 2 whole wheat chapatis, half cup yogurt, and half cup vegetable curry
· Half cup daal, half cup vegetable curry, 2 chapatis, and half cup yogurt
|Before Bed||· One glass of warm milk with raw ground turmeric powder or a pinch of cinnamon|
Diet Chart for South Indian
|Time||FOODS TO EAT|
|Early Morning||· Drink one glass of fenugreek water (overnight soaked)
· Eat 4-5 almonds (overnight soaked)
|Breakfast||· Eat two dosas with chutney and vegetable sambar with less salt
· Eat 2-3 idlis with chutney with Los salt and drumstick samber
· One small cup of vegetable and chutney
|Pre-Lunch||· Eat one apple or 1 cup papaya or 1 guava
· Tender coconut water
· Unstrained vegetable juice or bitter gourd
· thin buttermilk and One glass of ragi malt
|Lunch||· Cucumber and tomato salad with one cup sambar, multiple vegetables with spices, half cup brown rice, and one glass of mint jeera buttermilk
· Cucumber salad and tomato, one cup vegetable curry, half cup chicken, half cup brown rice, fish curry with low spice, and one glass of jeera and mint buttermilk
|Evening Snacks||· Roasted flaked rice and green tea with curry leaves and chopped garlic
· 1/4 cup homemade snacks and black coffee
· Filter coffee with low milk and a half cup of roasted chana
|Dinner||· Vegetable clear soup, or chicken soup, with 2 chapatis
· 2 chapatis, mixed vegetable curry, and curd
|Before Bed||· One cup of warm low-fat milk with one pinch of cinnamon powder or raw ground turmeric|
Diet Chart for West Indian
|Early Morning||· One glass of fenugreek water
· 4-5 Overnight soaked almonds
|Breakfast||· Half a cup of boiled sprouts and one cup of red rice or vegetable poha
· 2 tablespoons green chutney and 2 besan chillas
· One whole boiled egg, one cup vegetable oats upma, or two boiled egg whites
· 1 whole boiled egg or two boiled egg whites with one cup of vegetable oats upma
|Pre-Lunch||· 1 cup papaya/1 apple or guava or
· 1 glass bitter gourd juice or 1 glass unstrained vegetable juice
· 1 cup cucumber, carrot salad, tomato
|Lunch||· One cup vegetable curry, 2 chapatis, half cup curd, and one cup daal
· One cup vegetable, 2 chapatis, one cup daal, and half cup curd
· 3 oz baked or steamed chicken or fish with one cup vegetable curry, half cup rice, half cup curd
· One cup vegetable and Daliya khichdi with one cup curd and one roasted homemade papad.
|Evening Snacks||· ½ cup roasted chana with Green tea
· green moong/ black chana chaat with green tea with ½ cup
· 1 cup ghee-roasted makhana with green tea
|Dinner Options:||· 2 multigrain chapatis, 1 cup vegetable curry, curd, 1 cup daal
· 2 multigrain chapatis, Cucumber salad, Fish curry, or chicken curry
· ½ cup vegetable curry
|Before Bed||· Drink one glass of warm milk with one pinch of raw ground turmeric or cinnamon powder|
Functional Foods For Diabetes
Functional foods that have bioactive synthesis can provide beneficial effects in controlling blood glucose levels. The list of superfoods are:
Fenugreek is an aromatic plant that provides several uses both culinary. Fenugreek is an important ingredient in curries and different Indian recipes and medicinal.
The plant is widely grown in North Africa, South Asia, and Mediterranean parts has small round leaves, and provides long pods which have different bitter-tasting seeds.
How does it affect diabetes?
Fenugreek seeds have high soluble fiber, which helps to lower blood sugar by slowing down digestion and carbohydrate absorption. They may also help treat diabetes.
Multiple types of research have been carried out to analyze the potential antidiabetic benefits of Fenugreek.
Lauki (Bottle Gourd)
Lauki or bottle gourd has 92% of water, and the remaining is only fiber, which makes it an easily digestible food. It has a negligible quantity of sugar and glucose-related compounds, which makes it an ideal food for diabetics.
Adding Lauki to the everyday diet helps to lower blood sugar levels. Daily consuming a glass of bottled gourd juice provides more benefits for diabetic patients.
Almonds have always been famous as a good source of magnesium and vitamin E, which diabetes patients have a deficiency. Additionally, almonds have protein, fiber, phosphorus, calcium, mono-saturated fats, and iron. According to research eating almonds with high glycemic index food reduce its glycemic index and lower blood sugar levels.
Turmeric is another beneficial food for diabetics. It has the wound-healing ability and regulates insulin in the body. One pinch of turmeric in your daily diet regulates blood sugar levels, stops insulin sensitivity, lower body fat, boosts immunity and prevents infection, and regulates diabetes.
According to American Diabetes Association, spinach is a super food for diabetics. Vitamins and minerals content discovered in spinach reduce glycemic index. These zero calories in leafy greens food balance blood sugar levels and have low carbohydrates. Spinach consists 40% of your everyday need for magnesium, and people sugfer8 from type 2 diabetes often have reduced magnesium. So, it becomes essential for them to have spinach in their diet to manage blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Spinach can be added in raw form as a replacement for lettuce in sandwiches or salads and can be cooked in a variety of dishes.
Amla is another super food for diabetes as it provides vitamin C. Vitamin C is necessary for fixing pancreatic tissues. It also prevents insulin cell damage. Amla consists of chromium that normalized metabolism in your body.
Amla consumption may make your body very responsive to insulin. You can eat raw amla once a day but skip processed amla, especially with added sugar, as they can increase sugar levels.
Consumption of amla may make your body more responsive to Insulin. You can have one raw amla once a day, but avoid processed forms of amla, especially those that have added sugar, as they can aggravate blood sugar levels. Get to know more about healthy sugar levels.
Garlic has many health benefits and is not restricted to a particular disease only. But, for a diabetes patient, frequent consumption of garlic can help in increasing the amount of insulin released that regulates blood sugar levels. The sulfurous compounds present in garlic play a vital role in increasing insulin levels. Garlic provides the potential for decreasing the effects of complications developed because of diabetes. Research has shown that it also reduces bad cholesterol, fights infections, and aids blood flow.
Psyllium husks come from the seeds of the Plantago Ovata herb. The most common use for psyllium husk is found in laxatives that help bulk up stool, and make it pass easily. These supplements may help to improve cholesterol levels and treat intestinal diseases including constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and irritable bowel syndrome. As they contain high soluble fiber, they may also lower blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
Psyllium husk needs to consume during or near mealtimes to be effective in reducing post-prandial blood glucose levels.
Millet has low glycemic index than different grains. That means it elevates blood sugar slowly and slowly instead of in instant spikes. Low GI foods and high fiber foods keep blood sugar normal, drop cholesterol, and help in weight loss.
Brown rice is a type of whole grain that is good for health. Unlike white rice, which only has the starchy endosperm, brown rice has bran layers of grain and nutrient-rich germ. The only part removed is the rigid outer hull. Yet, while it is higher in many nutrients than white rice, brown rice has rich carbs. As a result, you may wonder whether it is safe for diabetics.
The high fiber content of brown rice help to lower post-meal blood sugar levels in obese people. Blood sugar control is necessary for delaying or preventing diabetes progression.
There are different legumes variety available. These consist of important vitamins and minerals. Legumes are high in fiber which plays an essential role in blood sugar levels management. Beans have a low glycemic index. The Glycemic index determines the food consumption effect on blood sugar levels. Legumes also have protein. Lentils, beans, peas, and more can be available. You can make a salad using boiled beans. Include fresh vegetables for extra nutrition.
Oatmeal is a hot cereal created from broken-down oat groats. People eat it mixed with milk or hot water to give it a smooth consistency. People with diabetes have a hard either using or producing insulin. They have to know of foods rich in carbohydrates as these foods break down fast into sugar. This could cause insulin and glucose spikes in the blood. It is one reason people with diabetes often look for a different source of carb-containing cereals. Oatmeal from whole grain oats may be a helpful addition to the diet for diabetics. Oatmeal has a low glycemic index score and soluble fiber to regulate diabetes.
The dietary fiber of quinoa is also high and beneficial for diabetes. Protein and fiber are important to keep blood sugar under control. Quinoa is the seed of a plant called Chenopodium quinoa. It has high nutrients and is marketed as a superfood.
Quinoa has a nutty flavor and crunchy texture. It is also gluten-free and enjoyed by people who are sensitive to wheat or gluten. Quinoa seeds are oval, flat, and usually pale yellow. The taste varies from sweet to bitter.
You can boil the quinoa and include it in a salad, soups, and eat-in breakfast. The seeds can also be ground, sprouted, and used as propped like popcorn.
Cinnamon is the best spice found in teas, extracts, and capsules. Cinnamon is widely used to get the distinct flavor to different dishes. The aromatic spice is not only a part of the culinary world but also a famous ingredient from ancient Ayurveda healing. Cinnamon provides different medicinal properties to prevent diabetes.
Diabetes is an ailment that refers to the commonly high amount of blood sugar in the body. The body is unable to create sufficient insulin and process glucose, which later enters the bloodstream. It leads to a blood sugar level spike. Cinnamon has some qualities that help to maintain sugar levels.
Foods to Avoid With Diabetes
Avoid High Glycemic Index Diet
As a diabetic, you should follow only the diabetic meal plan suggested by your physician. Eating less sugar and low sodium helps to improve sugar levels and keep blood pressure under control. A high glycemic diet leads to instant sugar release into the bloodstream. It thus leads to high blood sugar. Therefore, it should be avoided when you have diabetes.
According to research, artificial trans fats are unhealthy. Hydrogen is included in unsaturated fatty acids to manage them. Thus the production process takes place. It is majorly discovered in margarine, creamers, peanut butter, spreads, and muffins. Trans fats are added to increase shelf life.
It is connected with insulin resistance, more inflammation, less good cholesterol, cardiac problems, and damaged arterial function. Avoid those products with the label as partially hydrogenated.
Fruit juices are also healthy for energy but not for diabetes. People with diabetes should avoid fruit juices with high glycemic index value because it affects blood sugar levels quickly. Thus, skip sodas, and other sugary drinks. Therefore, it is good to consume unsweetened fruit juices or eat plain fruits. As a sugar-sweetened drink, fruit juice has high fructose. Fructose might cause insulin resistance and cardiac problems.
White Rice, Pasta, White Bread
White-colored items like bread, pasta, and rice have rich carbs and low fiber. This combination will cause high blood sugar levels. Therefore, changing low-fiber food with high fiber lower blood sugar levels. Several diabetics discover cholesterol with more fiber and improve gut microbiota that helps to boost insulin resistance.
Packed snacks are also not healthy foods as refined flour is the primary ingredient. The fast-digesting carbs rapidly lower blood sugar levels. It is suggested to consume low carbs vegetables or nuts between hunger pangs for regulating diabetes.
Honey, Maple Syrup
Diabetics better skip cookies, white sugar, and candies. High sugar spikes are present in the blood when other types of sugar are utilized like honey, brown sugar, and maple syrups. Therefore, skip them if you are suffering from high blood sugar levels.
More minerals, vitamins, and micronutrients are found in dried fruits. After drying fruit loses its water content which causes high concentrations of such nutrients. Simultaneously, sugar levels also get more concentrated.
While considering raisins, consist of carbs 4 times more than grapes. Hence, dried fruits consist of high carbs compared with fresh fruits.
Processed Foods Items
Skip or limit the processed carbs added sugar candies or cookies, or soda. Because of these blood sugar levels spike quickly. The preservatives included in processed canned foods consist of chemicals that can induce blood sugar levels. So, avoid them.
Don’t Eat Extreme Carbs
It is important to control extreme carb food to manage diabetes. The body quickly converts carbohydrates into glucose after digestion. It causes blood sugar levels to elevate. Thus, count your carbs for every meal. Extra carbs can lead to high blood sugar and overweight. Remember you can only consume half of the everyday calories from carbs. Any amount of more than half would lead to high blood sugar levels. Thus, if your everyday calorie need is 1600, you should consume 700-800 calories from carbs. Skip simple carbs as they contain a high glycemic index. Simple carbs like soft drinks, white bread, flour, cereals, and white pasta.
Avoid Smoking, Poor Lifestyle, and Alcohol
Bad lifestyle, obesity, smoking, stress, and alcohol can increase diabetes complications risks like kidney problems, heart problems, eye damage, and nerve damage. Several chronic diabetics might get diabetic neuropathy pain. Thus, it is important to manage a healthy weight, perform a regular workout, quit smoking and alcohol consumption, get enough sleep, and manage everyday stress through meditation and yoga to manage irregular diabetes.
Always follow your meal plan and guidelines like glycemic index, and carbs counts to help in blood sugar management. Consume 30 grams of fiber, 20% of daily protein, and lower cholesterol to 200 mg per day to support sugar level management.
For example: consuming non-starchy vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage more, eating low-carb fruits like blackberries, watermelon, peaches, berries, and unsaturated oils like sunflower, olive, and canola oil on moderate quantity seeds, avocado, drinking unflavored or sparkling water are considered good for managing diabetes.
Lifestyle Changes for People With Diabetes
According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes self-management education and support, medical nutrition therapy, smoking cessation counseling, physical activity, and psychological care are the essential characteristics to affect blood glucose biomarkers.
Following some practice, like yoga and waking up early, are some changes that will bring positivity and happiness to your life.
The Indian diet chart for people with diabetes may help to reverse the condition to a high extent.
A holistic strategy that has lifestyle management, balanced nutrition, and effective glycemic control helps to manage blood sugar levels. The right meal choices can help you manage your blood sugar and lower cholesterol, and control a healthy weight. Talk to your physician and nutritionist for advice tailored to your health and different medical conditions.
Keep an aim to skip refined carbs, liquid sugar, unhealthy fats, and processed grains. Eating that food will cause sharp sugar spikes and diabetes complications. Lifestyle changes and medication help to manage blood sugar levels and lower blood glucose levels. By skipping them, you can improve insulin sensitivity that keeps you healthy, and lower the risk of further growth of diabetes complications.